Fluctuations in abundance are largely determined by marine conditions, which affect herring survival, growth, and recruitment. Predicted increases in sea surface temperature and changes in upwelling, such as delayed and shorter upwelling seasons, could affect the timing and abundance of available prey for juveniles, though the magnitude of these effects is uncertain. Herring will also be sensitive to potential changes in nearshore and estuarine spawning habitat, such as increased salinity due to sea level rise and saltwater intrusion in estuaries, which could create suboptimal conditions for spawning and larval growth. Adult Pacific Herring migrate into estuaries to breed once per year, with timing varying by latitude. Cherry Point Pacific Herring numbers have been in decline since 1973. The discreteness of the population segment in relation to the remainder of the species (or subspecies) to which it belongs. Pacific Herring feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton in nutrient-rich waters associated with oceanic upwelling. After spawning, herring return to their summer feeding areas. In a viable metapopulation, we can expect some local subpopulations to be in decline, other subpopulations to increase, and some suitable habitat patches to be unoccupied. However, we did note concern about two Pacific Herring stocks within the Georgia Basin (the Cherry Point and Discovery Bay stocks) that have shown marked declines in range and abundance. They do not feed from the start of this migration through spawning, a period of up to two weeks. For COVID-19-related closures, restrictions, and updates see the WDFW COVID-19/Coronavirus response page. For the best experience, please use a modern browser such as Chrome, Firefox, or Edge. Learn more about Pacific herring. In the eastern North Pacific Ocean, Pacific Herring range from Beaufort Sea, Alaska, south to Baja California, Mexico. The maximum exploitation rate is 20 percent of the mature biomass, which is consistent with other herring fisheries on the west coast of North America. Loss of Cherry Point Pacific Herring would not result in a significant gap in the extensive range of Pacific Herring. The agency monitors and manages several spawning aggregations within Southeast Alaska, including: NOAA Fisheries conducted a status review of the Southeast Alaska distinct population segment of Pacific herring under the Endangered Species Act in 2014 and found that the species did not warrant listing. We concluded that the Georgia Basin Pacific Herring DPS does not warrant listing under the ESA. However, the National Marine Fisheries Servicedid announce would be initiating a status review for a wider Southeast Alaska distinct … In 2007, we received a petition to designate the Lynn Canal population of Pacific Herring as a threatened or endangered DPS under the ESA (PDF, 88 pages). Herring are a foundation species in Southeast Alaska, playing a central role in marine food webs and also of significant importance as a commercial and subsistence species in many communities. We concluded that the Pacific Herring stocks in Puget Sound do not qualify as a “species” under the Endangered Species Act. Primary and secondary productivity are strongly linked to juvenile abundance, as juveniles tend to prey on zooplankton (e.g., copepods). Pacific Herring is a coastal schooling species found on both the eastern and western sides of the Pacific Ocean. Lynn Canal population of Pacific Herring as a threatened or endangered DPS under the ESA (PDF, 88 pages). We determined that these Puget Sound Pacific Herring stocks, including Cherry Point, belonged to a larger group of Pacific Herring. Ecological uniqueness of the inshore waters of Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia supporting the significance of Georgia Basin Pacific Herring to the taxon as a whole. Learn more about the management of commercial herring fisheries in Southeast Alaska. Pacific herring are a candidate for state threatened and endangered species status. The Cherry Point stock does not exhibit “marked” genetic differentiation relative to other Pacific Herring populations. Current herring fisheries are managed by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game to ensure sustainability and include methods that target both adult fish and roe. This DPS included all Pacific Herring populations in Southeast Alaska, including the Lynn Canal population. Pacific Herring in southern locations (e.g., California) exhibit small size, mature earlier, and die younger. History. Cherry Point does not represent a unique or unusual ecological setting for Pacific Herring. Pacific Herring spawn along shorelines in intertidal and shallow subtidal zones. After hatching, Pacific Herring larvae remain in nearshore waters close to their spawning grounds to feed and grow in the protective cover of shallow water habitats. Additionally, the suite of vegetative species used by herring as spawning substrate could change with long-term variation in water temperature and acidity. Under the ESA, a listing determination may address a species, subspecies, or a distinct population segment of any vertebrate species that interbreeds when mature (section 3(16)). In 2004, we received two petitions, one in January and a supplemental petition in May, from the Northwest Ecosystem Alliance and six co-petitioners to find that the Cherry Point Herring population qualifies as a species under the ESA and warrants listing as a threatened or endangered species. Increased temperatures could also lead to northward shifts and increased abundance of Pacific hake, which prey upon herring and could thus lead to population declines through increased predation. Herring population abundance trends are very dynamic and are subject to fairly substantial changes on both large and small geographic scales.