Gregory stated that without a relationship of debt, there is no reciprocity, and that this is what distinguishes a gift economy from a "true gift" given with no expectation of return (something Sahlins calls "generalized reciprocity": see below). [49], Dāna is a form of religious charity given in Hindu India. This can be considered a form of reciprocal altruism. "[18], Hyde argues, somewhat against Mauss, that there is a difference between a "true" gift given out of gratitude and a "false" gift given only out of obligation. [75] For a time, a similar situation ensued after possession was legalized in California, Maine and Massachusetts. A gift creates a "feeling bond." [10] Parry also underscored, using the example of charitable giving of alms in India (Dāna), that the "pure gift" of alms given with no expectation of return could be "poisonous". However, James C. Scott points out that those who provide this subsistence insurance to the poor in bad years are wealthy patrons who exact a political cost for their aid; this aid is given to recruit followers. These prestations are often competitive, as in the potlatch, Kula exchange, and Moka exchange. This position, and the desire to refashion of all of society into a gift economy, are particularly characteristic of anarcho-primitivism and anarcho-communism. Free content, or free information, is any kind of functional work, artwork, or other creative content that meets the definition of a free cultural work. [26] The gift economy can also be turned to the service of command economy, as when Che Guevara insisted, "Labor should not be sold like merchandise but offered as a gift to the community. [41] The gifts are of a limited range of goods, primarily pigs and scarce pearl shells from the coast. [95] As Internet access spread, file sharing became extremely popular among users who could contribute and receive files on line. [3] The potlatch also originated as a "big feed. Thus gifting embodies the Hegelian dipole of master and slave within the act. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Bird-David and Darr refer to these as hybrid "mass-gifts" which are neither gift nor commodity. [25] But the gift economy can also take hideous turns, as when a gift is given mainly to create an obligation, a matter often treated in myths of the hazards of accepting a gift in hell or from the fairies. Some customers embrace the relationship and gift whereas others reject the gift relationship and interpret the "gift" as a 50% off sale.[59]. They refocussed attention away from the character of the human relationships formed through exchange, and placed it on "the social life of things" instead. As with gifting, mass-gifts are used to create a social relationship. Most organ donation systems give no compensation of any sort to the donor or their family; payment in this matter is often considered suspect, even criminal.[11]. SomeTemplate:Who have suggested that variations on a gift economy may be the key to breaking the cycle of poverty. Millions of articles are available on Wikipedia, and none of their innumerable authors and editors receives any material reward. However, prestige is not the only motivator for the giving of lines of code. Efforts such as Creative Commons led by Lawrence Lessig encourage sharing and argue that society and corporations will benefit from sharing. [65] This enables the reuse of goods and materials that might otherwise be discarded or fall into disuse. Some authors argue that gift economies build community,[7] while markets harm community relationships.[8]. In such situations where gift-giving and market exchange were intersecting for the first time, some anthropologists contrasted them as polar opposites. [6], In the example used above, "copyright" is one of those bundled rights that regulate the use and disposition of a book. Nonetheless, online file sharing persists in various forms such as Bit Torrent and Direct download link. [45], The Toraja funeral differs from the "big man" system in that the winner of the "gift" exchange gains control of the Tongkonan's property. to use the content and benefit from using it. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. Mauss appeared to be arguing that a return gift is given to maintain the relationship between givers; a failure to return a gift ends the relationship and the promise of any future gifts. Information is particularly suited to gift economics, as information can be copied and transmitted at practically no cost. [12] Productive resources, such as land, may be held by members of a corporate group (such as a lineage), but only some members of that group may have "use rights".

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