[29] The astrological etymology dates to late 1st-millennium CE, likely influenced by Greek zodiac ideas. Census of India, 1971: Haryana, Volume 6, Part 2, Page 137. [87], On 14 April 1998, 10 million pilgrims attended the Kumb Mela at Haridwar on the busiest single day, according to the Himalayan Academy editors. [6], The festival is traditionally credited to the 8th-century Hindu philosopher and saint Adi Shankara, as a part of his efforts to start major Hindu gatherings for philosophical discussions and debates along with Hindu monasteries across the Indian subcontinent. [38] This "spilling" and associated Kumbh mela story is not found in the earliest mentions of the original legend of samudra manthan (churning of the ocean) such as the Vedic era texts (pre-500 BCE). [3][4] During the colonial era rule of the East India Company, its officials saw the Hindu pilgrimage as a means to collect vast sums of revenue through a "pilgrim tax" and taxes on the trade that occurred during the festival. According to Macclean, the colonial records of this period on the Prayag Mela present a biased materialistic view given they were written by colonialists and missionaries. It will witness the coming together of millions of pilgrims, accompanied by sadhus and different akharas, to take a dip in the holy River Ganges. Constance Jones and James D. Ryan (2006), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Infobase, p. 280, UNESCO's Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, artificially intelligent video surveillance, Seeing, Being Seen, and Not Being Seen: Pilgrimage, Tourism, and Layers of Looking at the Kumbh Mela. [21][67], The Kumbh Melas attract many loner sadhus (monks) who do not belong to any akharas. after every 144 years. Der Name „Fest des Kruges“ hat seinen Ursprung in der Legende vom „Quirlen des Milchozeans“. Für viele der hinduistischen Orden ist die Kumbha Mela zudem der Ort für Einweihungen und Aufnahme von Schülern in ihre Gemeinschaft. It's attended by millions of people each day. Die Kumbh Mela wird schon seit Langem gefeiert; die erste schriftliche Erwähnung findet sie jedoch erst in den Aufzeichnungen des chinesischen Reisenden Xuanzang im 7. The government deployed police to gain this intelligence at the grassroots level of Kumbh Mela. So they built a high-tech surveillance ministate", "Mauni Amavasya: Five crore pilgrims take holy dip at Kumbh till 5 pm", "Review of Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765–1954", "Time Trends of Cholera in India : An Overview", "Five die in stampede at Hindu bathing festival", Kumbh Mela pictured from space – probably the largest human gathering in history, "India's Hindu Kumbh Mela festival begins in Allahabad", Kumbh Mela: How UP will manage one of the world's biggest religious festival, "Official Website of Kumbh Mela 2013 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh India", "CM reviews Kumbh Mela 2021 preparations", "Managing the Earth's Biggest Mass Gathering Event and WASH Conditions: Maha Kumbh Mela (India)", 10.1371/currents.dis.e8b3053f40e774e7e3fdbe1bb50a130d, India: Staying Healthy at “The Biggest Gathering on Earth”, "Sadhus astride elephants, horses at Maha Kumbh", "Short Cut to Nirvana - A Documentary about the Kumbh Mela Spiritual Festival", "Kumbh Mela 2013 – living with mahatiagi", "Why twins no longer get separated at Kumbh Mela", "Uncertified film screening at Kolkata gallery miffs CBFC", "India's Kumbh Mela Is Used as an Incubator for Smart City Startup Ideas", "Massachusetts Institute of Technology joins the pilgrims at the Kumbh Mela in Nashik, India to test out technology for our over-crowded cities", "From Waze for crowds to Uber for street food – MIT innovations at Kumbh Mela", "ISIS Has Just Warned India Of Las Vegas Type Lone-Wolf Attacks During Kumbh Mela", "Kumbh Mela 2019: ISIS issues threats of chemical attack, NDRF conducts mock drill", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kumbh_Mela&oldid=990970583, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Religious pilgrimage, rituals, social practices and festive events. According to Amna Khalid, the Kumbh Melas emerged as one of the social and political mobilisation venues and the colonial government became keen in monitoring these developments after the Indian rebellion of 1857. This festival is held at the Mahamaham tank (near Kaveri river) every 12 years at Kumbakonam, attracts millions of South Indian Hindus and has been described as the Tamil Kumbh Mela. Indian authorities had to manage 250 million festivalgoers. [27][28], The Kumbha in Kumbha Mela literally means "pitcher, jar, pot" in Sanskrit. 144-Jahres-Rhythmus statt. [46] According to some scholars, this is the earliest surviving historical account of the Kumbh Mela, which took place in present-day Prayag in 644 CE. It is celebrated in a cycle of approximately 12 years at four river-bank pilgrimage sites: the Allahabad (Ganges-Yamuna Sarasvati rivers confluence), Haridwar (Ganges), Nashik (Godavari), and Ujjain(Shipra). [29] The word Kumbha or its derivatives are found in the Rigveda (1500–1200 BCE), for example, in verse 10.89.7; verse 19.16 of the Yajurveda, verse 6.3 of Samaveda, verse 19.53.3 of the Atharvaveda, and other Vedic and post-Vedic ancient Sanskrit literature. [70][71] This changed particularly after 1857. [71], Baptist missionary John Chamberlain, who visited the 1824 Ardh Kumbh Mela at Haridwar, stated that a large number of visitors came there for trade. It dates from the early centuries CE, given it has been mentioned in several early Puranas. Sadhus travel to the Kumbh Mela to make themselves available to much of the Hindu public. The festival had roadside merchants of food grains, confectioners, clothes, toys and other items. [73], Prior to 1838, the British officials collected taxes but provided no infrastructure or services to the pilgrims.

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