(Considering the Disston authors' mention of the blacksmith guilds of 13th-century Florence and 15th-century England, coupled with their mention of Nuremberg, Sheffield, and Remscheid, the region that sweeps from Florence through Nuremberg, the Rhine-Ruhr, the Netherlands, and up to Sheffield, can be compared to the modern economics notation of the Blue Banana.) If you understand the basic terminology, it is actually quite simple. The cross-section of a file can be flat, round, half-round, triangular, square, knife edge or of a more specialized shape. Archaeologists have also discovered rasps made of iron used by the Assyrians, dating back to the 7th Century BC.  In Swiss-pattern files the teeth are cut at a shallower angle, and are graded by number, with a number 1 file being coarser than a number 2, etc. The cut of the file refers to how fine its teeth are. They are often used as an intermediate step in die making where the surface finish of a cavity die may need to be improved, e.g. Files come in a wide variety of materials, sizes, shapes, cuts, and tooth configurations. A narrow, pointed tang is common at one end, to which a handle may be fitted. Most American pattern files are available in three grades of coarseness: bastard-cut, second-cut and smooth-cut. These components were then individually hand-fitted for assembly by careful and deliberate filing. For example, … Machining in the mid-19th century was heavily dependent on filing, because milling practice was slowly evolving out of its infancy. cat collumns.txt | cut -d" " -f5 > field2.txt I'm running PowerShell 2 and try to extract first two columns from my fixed-width .dat file (text file) – atricapilla Mar 24 '10 at 6:01 1 The cut example you link to uses a … A workpiece is manipulated around the file's face as the shape requires. Classification according to coarseness or spacing of the teeth is confined to single- and double-cut files. Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File_(tool)&oldid=986921149, Articles needing additional references from February 2010, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The most common shape, single-cut, rectangular in cross section, with an even thickness throughout their length; they may be either parallel sided or taper slightly in width from heel to end, Similar to a mill file, but may be double-cut, Parallel in width and tapered in thickness, used for general work, Gradually tapered and cut on all four sides. Using a combination of strokes, and progressively finer files, a skilled operator can attain a surface that is perfectly flat and near mirror finish. This is because shorter files are generally used for finer work. Steel files are made from high carbon steel (1.0 to 1.25% carbon) and may be through hardened or case hardened. Among the drawings of Leonardo da Vinci is a sketch of a machine tool for the cutting of files (the chisel would make one strike, swaging a tooth, then automatically advance into position for the next tooth, and strike again). Most files have teeth on all faces, but some specialty flat files have teeth on only one face or one edge, so that the user can come right up to another edge without damaging the finish on it. The middle is called the second cut. Walton, Richard E. Principles and Practice of Endodontics, 3rd Edition. A file may taper in width, in thickness, or both. To extract only a desired column from a file use -c option. at each end, and with an even pressure alternately pulled and pushed perpendicularly over the work. Overall, the finest would be a 4″ Smooth file and the coarsest would be a 16″ Bastard file. cat columns.txt | cut -d" " -f5 In the example data you provided, a single space delimiter puts the data you want in field 5. Cut uses a special form for selecting characters from beginning upto the end of the line: For example a 6″ Bastard Cut is a lot finer than a 12″ Bastard Cut. in width. The finest is called a smooth cut. Skillful filing to shape and size is still a part of diemaking, moldmaking, toolmaking, etc., but even in those fields, the goal is usually to avoid handwork when possible. In today's manufacturing environment, milling and grinding have generally replaced this type of work, and filing (when it occurs at all) usually tends to be for deburring only. The varying profiles and shapes enable them to be used in hard to reach, or unusually shaped areas. The potential precision of such fitting is much higher than generally assumed, but the components of such hand-fit assemblies are decidedly not interchangeable with those from another assembly. But the point is that modern iron or steel files, with teeth and hardening, and the material culture of intricate filing that would lead to locksmithing and gunsmithing, for example, are what took time to become common. These engineers files feature blades that are parallel in width and slightly tapered in thickness.
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